The last few decades have witnessed extensive research on the Orang Asli population. However, until recently, there has been no proper compilation of scientific data on the Orang Asli, especially on their genetic and dental profiles. The Orang Asli of Peninsular Malaysia is among the oldest populations in the world and therefore knowledge on their genotype and phenotype is extremely precious, especially in providing insight into their evolutionary process and in helping mitigate potential challenges that they may face in the future. Research by various groups as compiled in this book suggests that the Orang Asli is indeed facing significant challenges for their survival - effects that resulted from changes in their lifestyle, environmental and socio-economical pressures, as well as inbreeding. These negative 'pressures' therefore need to be effectively addressed to ensure their survival. This book contains important information on the genetic and dental profiles of the Orang Asli that will be useful as background data for future research as well as to assist the relevant authorities to design and implement meaningful policies for the Orang Asli.